Close-up of a face coloured with rainbow colours, showing the colours of different types of personalities a person carries. Close-up of a face coloured with rainbow colours, showing the colours of different types of personalities a person carries.

The Spectrum of Self: Exploring Various Personality Types

Do you know which type of personality you are? Many of us don’t know the answer. In fact, we don’t bother to know it because we are not aware of the different types of personalities.

The study of personality began over 2,000 years ago from the time of the famous Greek physicians Hippocrates and Galen. An American psychologist, Gordon Willard Allport, was the pioneer of personality psychology.

Later on, the psychodynamic approach of Sigmund Freud, an Australian physician and psychologist, became a popular technique to understand how different personalities evolve.

Freud explained that we are unconscious of our actions. But always got an explanation about what and why we have done. According to him, our behavior is predetermined by some outside factors.

There are so many theories and explanations to segregate the different personality types. We are going to take a close look at this discussion.

1. What Is Personality?

The combination of characteristics and qualities that define and distinguish a person’s character from others is called personality. Moreover, it consists of the patterns of behaviors, thoughts, interactions with others, and feelings of an individual that remain unchanged over time and in different situations.

When we interact with others, expressing our opinions, moods, thoughts, and altitudes, it depicts our characteristics and personality.

2. How Is Personality Measured?

Various processes of personality tests consist of some psychometric questionnaires on different situations and converting them to segregated personality traits. Personality tests help determine someone’s personality type.

The Big Five traits are very popular in personality tests. In this method, psychologists collect information about a person regarding Extroversion, Agreeableness, Openness to experience, Conscientiousness, and Neuroticism to define his personality. This is called the NEO-PI method.

Another popular personality measurement test is MMPI-2 (Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory 2). It consists of 4 validity scales that measure the test’s truthfulness. It also has ten clinical scales that depict the most abnormal behaviors.

Moreover, there are some other personality tests like – HEXACO Personality Inventory, Enneagram Typology, and Caddell’s 16PF Personality Questionnaire.

3. Personality Traits

The characteristics or dimensions that determine the behavior and personality of an individual are called Personality Traits.

The Five Factor Model, which consists of the ‘Big Five’ parameters, is the most popular personality trait theory. The Big Five personality factors are:

3.1. Openness to experience

This trait depicts that the person is ready to learn new skills and open to facing new challenges. Individuals with this characteristic are generally creative and broadminded people.

3.2. Agreeableness

This is the quality to adjust to situations and face challenges without fear. Such types of personalities are always ahead to help others, kindhearted, and empathetic.

3.3. Conscientiousness

The quality of good impulse control, thoughtfulness, and hard work are called Conscientiousness. Individuals with these traits are goal-oriented, well-organized, deadline-aware, and always think before doing.

3.4. Neuroticism

Persons having this trait are worried about small things and become stressed. Moreover, their mood shifts dramatically, and they instantly become anxious, angry, and sad.

3.5. Extraversion

The significant characteristics of these traits are highly emotional expressiveness, talkativeness, sociability, assertiveness, and excitability. The persons having this trait are fun-loving and tend to be dominant.

On the other hand, introverted personality traits are just the opposite. They prefer loneliness and worry to start a conversation and are less talkative.

Researchers say that environmental and biological influences play a significant role in building these Big Five personality traits.

In addition, some other personality traits are divided into two main categories – 1. Positive traits, and 2. Negative traits.

  • Positive Traits: Thorough, Optimistic, Adaptable, Well-rounded, Respectful, humble, Steady, Objective, Gracious, Cooperative, Ambitious, Insightful, Friendly, and Considerate.
  • Negative Traits: Selfish, Judgmental, Arrogant, Withdrawn, Moody, Cold, Unreliable, Intolerant, Aggressive, Prosperous, Guarded, Deceptive, Neglectful, and Egotistical.

4. Different Types of Personalities

There are many theories to categorize personality types. The two most popular models are (A) Type A personality, Type B personality, Type C personality, and Type D personality. (B) Myers Briggs Type Indicator – 16 personality types. Here, we will discuss these two models in depth:

4.1. Four Types of Personalities: A, B, C, and D

According to a popular theory, types of personalities are divided into four parts only. Those are:

  •  Type A Personality: Goal-oriented, Perfectionist, Workaholic, Pessimistic, and Energetic.
  • Type B Personality: Enthusiastic, Optimistic, Laid back, Adaptable to change, Fun-loving, and Creative.
  • Type C Personality: Deep thinker, Hardworking, Perfectionist, Detail-oriented, and Cautious.
  • Type D Personality: Pessimistic, Distressed, Hopeless, Worried, Love routine life, Irritable, and Anxious.

4.2. Myers Briggs Type Indicator – 16 Types of Personalities

Katharine Cook Briggs and Isabel Briggs Myers, mother and daughters, founded ‘Myers Briggs Type Indicator’ in 1920.

They identified 16 different personality types based on some basic traits. Those traits are Feeling (F), Thinking (T), Extroversion (E), Introversion (I), Perceiving (P), Judging (J), Sensing (S), and Intuition (I).

Each type carries four initial letters denoting four significant traits of a person’s character. For example, the personality category Entertainer depicted by ESFP. That means the person has Extraversion, Sensing, Feeling, and Perceiving qualities.

As per the  Myers-Briggs Type Indicator, there are 16 types of personalities under four categories. Those are Sentinel, Analyst, Explorer, and Diplomat. Each category has four sub-categories. Here, we will discuss all these personalities:

4.2.1. Sentinel

Personality type Sentinels are generally conscientious, caring, and reliable. They are hard workers and strictly maintain deadlines. All of them have observing and judging traits.

The individuals in this category are self-motivated and don’t like drama. They respect the value of carefulness, wisdom, kindness, stability, and practicality. The four personality types under this category are: Defender Personality (ISFJ)

Defenders are people who have judging, introversion, feeling, and observant traits. This personality type of people is detail-oriented and perfectionist.

They are warm protectors and always go ahead to defend their dearest ones.

These people naturally spend time with themselves in quiet places and have very few close friends.

  • Strengths: Loyal and hardworking, reliable and patient, enthusiastic, supportive, good practical skills, imaginative and Attentive.
  • Weaknesses: Reluctant to change, Humble and shy, Repress their feelings, Takes things too personally, Too altruistic, Logistician Personality (ISTJ)

Individuals with Judging, introverted, thinking, and observant traits are called Logisticians.

Moreover, they have undoubtedly reliable, honest, and sharp minds.

  • Strengths: Calm and practical, Honest and direct, Knowledgeable, Dutiful, Enforce order, Responsible.
  • Weaknesses: Judgmental, Stubborn, Always buying books, Too insensitive. Consul Personality (ESFJ)

Consul personality types are responsible and respected persons in society, and thus they are very popular too.

The traits of this personality are Judging, extraverted, feeling, and observant.

  • Strengths: Good connecting with others, Strong practical skills, Warm and sensitive, Loyal, and Strong duty sense.
  • Weaknesses: Too needy, Worried about social status, Too generous, Reluctant to change, Inflexible, Sensitive to criticism. Executive Personality (ESTJ)

These types of personalities are experts in managing people and things to play outstanding roles as an administrator. Executives always support the ethics that are correct and socially acceptable.

The significant traits of this personality are judging, Extroversion, thinking, and observation. Hence, they always try to lead by example, and obviously, they are ready to take greater responsibility.

  • Strengths: Excellent organizers, strong-willed, Orderly, caring, dedicated, honest, and direct.
  • Weaknesses: Difficult to relax, Stubborn and inflexible, Difficulty expressing emotions, Focused on social status, Judgmental.

 4.2.2. Analyst

Analyst personality type people have common traits like intuition and Thinking. They always listen to their head despite their heart when making decisions. The four personality types under this bracket are: Commanders Personality (ENTJ)

This personality type people are natural-born leaders and great entrepreneurs. Commanders are decisive and motivated and enjoy hard work independently to achieve their goals.

Commanders have four personality traits: Thinking, Extraverted, Judging, and Intuitive. They easily recognize other people’s hidden talents, which helps them to build their teams.

  • Strengths: Charismatic and inspiring, Efficient, Strategic thinker, Energetic, Strong-willed, and Self-confident.
  • Weaknesses: Poor handling of emotion, Dominance and stubbornness, Ruthlessness and coldness, intolerance, arrogance, and Impatience. Architect Personality (INTJ)

This personality type is one of the rarest of 16 personality types. This type of person applies rationality and creativity to make their life perfect.

Architects people always find possibilities to improve their methods and lives. Their thoughtfulness and brilliant logical and reasoning skills help them to solve problems easily. Architects are also analytical problem solvers.

The INTJ personality type has traits like introversion, intuition, thinking, and judgment.

  • Strengths: Willingness to learn, Curiosity, Rationality, Determination, Innovation, and independence.
  • Weaknesses: Socially indifferent, Arrogant, Pugnacious, Overly critical, and Dismissive of emotions. Debater Personality (ENTP)

The traits of Debater’s personality types are Extroverted, intuitive, thinking, and perceiving. You can see people surrounding them, and sometimes have a laid-back attitude.

Debaters are big thinkers. In fact, brainstorming is their main characteristic. They naturally struggle to maintain and build strong relationships with their partners.

  • Strengths: Energetic, Knowledgeable, Innovative, Charismatic, Creative genius, and Quick thinker.
  • Weaknesses: Insensitive, Argumentative, Unfocused, and Dislike practical matters. Logician Personality (INTP)

As per the name, logical thinking and behaving people are called logician personality types. Surprisingly robust intellectual and unique perspectives towards life make them different from the crowd.

Some of the eminent philosophers and scientists are falling into this personality type. Logicians are deep thinkers and natural leaders.

  • Strengths: Objective, Analytical, Logical, Abstract thinker, Curious, and Open minded.
  • Weaknesses: Perfectionist, Insensitive, Struggle to follow the rules, Impatient, Disconnected, and Has trouble expressing feelings.

4.2.3. Explorer

The Explorers are masters of solving problems. Due to their spontaneous and inquisitive characteristics, they are excellent at crafts and skills. Four types of Explorer personalities are: Virtuoso Personality (ISTP)

These personality types people are technical-minded, mechanical, and eager to learn machinery. They love to go beyond the boundaries to make a thing happen according to their thinking.

The four traits of this personality type are Sensing, Introverted,  Perceiving, and Thinking. Whenever they face any problem, they try to find a practical solution because they are very spontaneous and logical.

  • Strengths: Problem-solving, Energetic and optimistic, Relaxed, Practical, Creative, Great in a crisis, Rational and spontaneous.
  • Weaknesses: Impatient, Insensitive, Reserved and private, Stubborn, and Risk-taking behavior. Entertainer Personality (ESFP)

As per their name, these people are the most energetic and entertaining among the 16 personality types. They are acquainted with other people’s emotions.

Having Extraverted, Sensing, Feeling, and Perceiving traits, they are spontaneous, talkative, fun-loving, and full of enthusiasm. For the same reason, Entertainers possess strong interpersonal skills.

Finally, Entertainers are highly sensitive to critiques. They also love to observe others and eagerly help needy people.

  • Strengths: Practical and bold, Showmanship, Original, Observant, and Supportive.
  • Weaknesses: Easily bored, Sensitive, Poor long-term focus, and Conflict avoidance. Entrepreneur Personality (ESTP)

People with these personality types have traits like extroverted, thinking, observing, and perceiving. They are popular for their action-oriented characteristics.

Entrepreneur personality type has a good sense of humor. On the contrary, they are practical problem solvers and energetic people.

  • Strengths: Sociable and personable, can attitude, Direct, Bold, Original, and Rational.
  • Weaknesses: Unstructured, Judgmental, Defiant, Impatient, and Commitment-phobic. Adventurer Personality (ISFP)

Personality types: Adventurers are caring and warm, open-minded, and adaptable to situations. They always try to prove their uniqueness and love to enjoy their present moment.

The four traits of this category are introversion, feeling, sensing, and perceiving. That is why they are spontaneous, flexible, unassuming, and quiet.

  • Strengths: Artistic, Charming, Curious, Imaginative, Principled, and Observant.
  • Weaknesses: Lack of future planning, Too sensitive, Easily stressed, Unpredictable, and Easily bored.

4.2.4. Diplomats

Diplomats are highly empathetic, tactful, and warm persons. Moreover, they try to think differently to make the world more beautiful through their innovative ideas. The four personality types under this category are: Protagonist Personality (ENFJ)

Idealistic and thoughtful people with great leadership qualities fall under this category. They don’t hesitate to speak out for the right.

Protagonist types of personalities have Feeling, Extraverted, Judging, and Intuitive traits. As has been noted, they concentrate on future possibilities of a fact and act upon that.

  • Strengths: Charismatic, Reliable, Persuasive, Encouraging, Empathetic, Receptive, and Organized.
  • Weaknesses: Manipulative, Indecisive, Intense, Unrealistic, and Overly sensitive. Advocate Personality (INFJ)

These personality types have Feeling, Introverted, Judging, and Intuitive traits. INFJ personality type people always try to understand other people’s feelings and are eager to help them overcome their challenges.

In addition, advocate personality types have their ethics and brilliant ideas to leave a mark in the world to remember them.

  • Strengths: Decisiveness, Practical insight, Passionate, Principled, and Keeping the peace.
  • Weaknesses: Avoiding the ordinary, Sensitive to criticism, Overlooking details, Conflict averse, and Reluctant to open up. Campaigner Personality (ENFP)

This personality type’s social skills help connect emotionally to the people around them and make them explore their creative side.

They always try to find new ideas for doing things differently. Campaigners are efficient in communicating with all types of personalities.

Campaigners have feeling, Extroverted, Prospective, and intuitive traits. They love to apply their methods to analyze things and then come to action.

  • Strengths: Festive, Curious, Natural leader, Excellent communicator, Enthusiastic, and Imaginative.
  • Weaknesses: Restlessness, lack of focus, overemotional, Hypersensitive, and disorganized. Mediator Personality (INFP)

The INFP or mediator possesses feelings, introversion, prospectiveness, and intuition. They love analyzing signs and body language to guess what is going to happen.

These types of personalities are imaginative, creative, and famous for their sensitiveness. Mediators like spending time with themselves in a lonely place.

  • Strengths: Dedication, Idealism, Empathy, Passion, Generosity, and Integrity.
  • Weaknesses: Self-critical, Unrealistic, Vulnerability, Sensitivity, and Unfocused.

5. Impact of Personality on Our Life

Your personality tells about what you are and how you are. If you know your types of personalities, you better know your weaknesses and strengths.

Personality not only expresses our behavior and adjustment to the environment but also decides our reaction to a certain situation and action. It makes the perspective to our life.

It helps you understand which career is better for you and which job role will best fit your personality. So it will guide you to choose the proper career path.

Personality has a significant impact on our physiology and psychology. Sometimes, it can affect our health, too. Our personality controls our behavior and interaction with others, but it can also indicate symptoms of some illnesses.

If any personality disorder is noted in a person, we should visit a doctor. If delayed, they may have suicidal tendencies and can ruin their lives.

6. Personality Development

We sometimes compare ourselves with others and feel bad, assuming we don’t have the required quality. This brings the most adverse effect on our personality.

However, we can easily develop a good personality if we take some positive steps. Here are some tips:

  • The first and foremost thing is to have confidence in yourself.
  • Set a daily personality development goal.
  • Get out of your comfort zone.
  • Identify your current attributes.
  • Interact with people of all kinds.
  • Smile more often.
  • Try to grow social interaction.
  • Be more enthusiastic and relaxed.
  • Keep your mind away from negativity.
  • Be warm and approachable.
  • Think like a leader.
  • Practice Deep Breathing and Meditation.

7. Final Words

Summing up, in this discussion we got to know various types of personalities and their characteristics in a deep view. All the personalities have some differences and some similarities.

But we should never forget that every person in this world is unique. You can’t find two persons with a hundred percent similarities. So, we must celebrate our uniqueness.

Find out your personality type to better know your weaknesses and strengths. Work upon your significant traits to make the required changes in your lifestyle and choose your superhighway to success. Best of luck!

Last Updated on by ayeshayusuf


  • Anjan Bandyopadhyay

    Anjan Bandyopadhyay is a seasoned editorial professional with a unique perspective on language and an unwavering commitment to precision. Eager to immerse himself in the dynamic world of editing, he brings a youthful energy to the craft. Anjan's keen eye for detail and his genuine love for language position him as a promising editor, ready to refine and elevate written content.


    • B Sc
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    • BSc in Pure Science
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